LKBEN10896: Folder Structure under Linux


Simple description of standard Linux-folders and comparison to windows


Linux fundamentals


One of the fundamentals of Linux (actually: all Unixes) is the hierarchy of directories or folders. This is one of the part, migrants from windows sometimes find hard to understand, but Windows has a similar structure itself - it just has changed several times and never has been enforced as much as in Unix.
Another crucial thing about directories in Linux is the location, these directories are hosted. Unlike Windows, this (virtual) folder hierarchy has not to be located on the same machine. This way it's easy, to host certain structures (like applications or data) only once with access for many users and machines.
Other structures (like the kernel and drivers) MUST be locally (and by the way, nobody else cares about them...).
In other words, these folder hierarchies contain data, which is either static or variable, shareable over the network or unshareable (local).

Below you will find a list of the basic directory structure of Linux (and many Unixes) with a short explanation and (if possible) the comparable folder in Windows. In order not to complicate it, I just took the folders of 32 Bit Windows, in 64 Bit (and of cause 16 Bit!) - Windows these might differ slightly.

essential (Shell-) programs; static, shareable
Windows: %Systemroot%\ and %systemroot%\system32\

contains crucial files for booting up the system; most remarkable: kernel and drivers. static, unshareable
Windows: %Systemdrive%\, %Systemroot%\ and %systemroot%\system32\; There can be lots of different places like driverfolders too.

devices (f. ex. "/dev/hda"); static, unshareable
Windows: not easy to compare; since in the Linux philosophy everything is a file, devices (like CD-Rom, Floppy,...) must reside in the filestructure. In Windows the closest to this folder would be the Device Manager.

Important configurations for the System (for instance the "fstab" file). static, unshareable
Windows: no real equivalence; most likely INI files or the registry.

/home (f. ex. /home/<username>)
Folder for keeping User - homedirectories. This is the (only) region, a user has full access. variable, shareable
Windows: %Userprofile%: \Documents and Settings\<username>; from Vista on: \Users\<username>. Possibly the "my documents" folder further down.

essential libraries.
Windows: not exactly defined, most likely: %Systemroot%\ and %systemroot%\system32.
Contains modules to be loaded dynamically into the Kernel.

mounted devices (HD, CD-Rom, USB-Stick, DVD, floppy...);
Windows: devices (like harddisc, USB-Hostadapter) found under Device Manager, the mounted device would be represented most likely by the driveletter (C: --> harddisc, f.ex. f: for USB-Stick).

Folderstructure for installation or applications
Windows: \program files\

/proc (only Linux)
Not on every system: mounted virtual filesystem with informations about processes and system
Windows: no analogy; possibly tools like Taskmanager

Homedirectory of user "root". Should not be needed often, since nobody is supposed to actually work with this account.
Windows: \Documents and Settings\<Administrator> (Vista: \Users\<Administrator>). The actual name of the local Administrator can differ; Microsoft encourages users not to work with this account, especially witch User Account Control (UAC) in Vista and later.

Essential system binaries
Windows: no analogy

Temporary files. Will be deleted upon next boot up.
Windows: obsolete: \TEMP; new: %Systemroot%\TEMP and userspecific: "\Documents and Settings\<User>\Local Settings\Temp"; however temporary files will usually not be deleted automatically by the system.

"universal system resources"; the most vital collection of files. static, shareable.
Windows: no analogy
Grafic Subsystem (X11)
User generated programs (binaries)
Default directory for include-files
Libraries for user generated programs
Extra directory - hierarchy for user generated programs
non-essential system - binaries
Architecture-independend data
Directory for Sourcecode (optional)

Directory structure, variable, unshareable
Windows: no analogy
application specific cache files
variable status informations
variable data for "/usr/local"
variable data for "/opt"
Relevant data for running processes
Spooling data (f.ex. files to be printed, not retrieved mails,...)
Temporary files, NOT to be deleted upon reboot



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About the Author

Author: Wim Peeters - Keskon GmbH & Co. KG

Wim Peeters is electronics engineer with an additional master in IT and over 30 years of experience, including time spent in support, development, consulting, training and database administration. Wim has worked with SQL Server since version 6.5. He has developed in C/C++, Java and C# on Windows and Linux. He writes knowledge base articles to solve IT problems and publishes them on the Lubby Knowledge Platform.